One of the most risky complications of diabetes comes in the form of diabetic foot problems. Diabetic foot problems stem from the fact that diabetes reduces the sensation of discomfort and pain in the foot, allowing previously innocuous foot problems to become very serious. Diabetic foot problems generally come from complications caused by:
1. Increased incidence of ulcers calluses and blisters.
2. Increased risk of foot infections such as cellulitis, osteomyelitis and sepsis.
3. Athletes foot (a type of fungal infection).
4. Ingrown toenails.
5. Charcot arthropathy.
6. Crackling due to dry skin.
7. High risks of developing gangrene.
8. Hammertoes (shortened tendons of toes cause them to contract).
8. Amputation of the affected foot to limit the damage.
Causes of diabetic foot problems
The pathophysiology of these problems is of two types.
Diabetic peripheral neuropathy:
High sugar levels damage the nerves and reduce sensations in the feet and legs subjecting the pressure bearing areas of the body to suffer wounds that remain unnoticed may develop into calluses and deep ulcers.
Peripheral Arterial Disease:
Atherosclerosis exaggerated by diabetes causes narrowing of the vessels resulting in reduced blood flow and greater cell death in the affected areas.
Prevention and Treatment:
Proper and regular care of the feet and controlled blood sugar levels help prevent foot problems in diabetics and save from worsening of the complications.